Manual Muscle Testing of the Glenohumeral Joint
|Cervical Spine||Fingers (MCP, PIP, & DIP Joints)||Knee|
|Glenohumeral Joint||Thumb (CMC, MCP, & IP Joints)||Ankle|
|Elbow & Radioulnar Joints||Lumbar & Thoracic Spine||Scapulothoracic|
|Wrist||Hip||Toes (MTP, PIP, & DIP Joints)|
|Glenohumeral Abduction||Patient is short sitting with arm at side and elbow slightly flexed. Examiner is standing behind patient giving resistance over arm just above elbow. Patient abducts arm to 90 degrees against maximal downward pressure.|
|Glenohumeral Flexion||Patient is short sitting with arms at sides, elbow slightly flexed, and forearm supinated. Examiner stands at test side with one hand giving maximal resistance over distal humerus and other hand stabilizing shoulder.|
|Glenohumeral Extension||Patient is prone with arms at sides and shoulder internally rotated. Examiner stands at test side and applies maximal resistance over posterior arm just above elbow. Patient raises arm off table keeping elbow straight.|
|Shoulder Extension to Isolate Latissimus Dorsi||Patient is short sitting with hands flat on table next to hips. If the patient's arm are too short, blocks may be used under each hand. Therapist stands behind patient to observe or palpate the fibers of the Latissimus dorsi on the lateral aspects of the thoracic wall (bilaterally) just above the waist. Patient pushes down on hands to lift buttocks from table.|
|Glenohumeral Internal Rotation||Patient is prone with shoulder abducted to 90 degrees with folded towel placed under distal arm and forearm hanging vertically over edge of table. Examiner stands at test side giving resistance over volar side of forearm just above the wrist in a downward and forward direction. The other hand provides counterforce at the elbow in a backward and slightly upward direction.|
|Glenohumeral External Rotation||Patient is prone with shoulder abducted to 90 degrees and forearm hanging vertically over edge of table. Examiner stands at test side at level of patient's waist. One hand gives resistance at wrist while other hand supports and provides counter pressure at the elbow. Patient moves forearm upward through range of external rotation.|
|Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction||Patient is prone with shoulder abducted to 90 degrees and forearm off edge of table with elbow flexed. Examiner stands at test side giving resistance over posterior arm just above elbow with other hand stabilizing the trunk. Patient lifts elbow toward ceiling against resistance.|
|Glenohumeral Scaption||Patient is short sitting with arms at sides. Examiner stands slightly to the test side of the patient. Resistance hand contours over the arm just above the elbow, while other hand stabilizes the upper body. Patient elevates arm halfway between flexion and abduction against resistance.|
Hislop, Helen J. & Montgomery, Jaqueline with contributor Barbara Connelly.
Daniels and Worthingham's muscle testing: techniques of manual examination., 6th edition, 1995.